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Country History: Sudan


Country History: Sudan

The Republic of Sudan is an Afro-Arab country that lies in North Africa and is neighboring Ethiopia and Eritrea on the east, Egypt and Libya on the north, Chad and the Central African Republic on the west and South Sudan on the south. The name Bilad Al-Sudan was given to the region that is located south of the Great African Sahara Desert which stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean in the east, while this name is now given to the area that lies south of Egypt, the central part of the Nile Basin 

The Sudan is located in the northeastern part of Africa between Latitude 22.4 in the south and Altitude 38. 22.. It occupies a position between Africa and the Arab world, a situation which has given the country a unique advantage, being a main passage between North and South Africa and was until recently a main pathway for pilgrims and merchants from West Africa to the Holy Lands (Mecca and Medina) and East Africa 

The area of the Sudan is about 1,882,000 square kilometers which makes it one of the biggest African countries, ranking the world’s 16th, the second in Africa after Algeria and Arab region’s third after the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Algeria. Its land surface is 1,752,187 square kilometers. The water area covers 129,813 km.

The Capital: -Khartoum is the capital of Sudan and Khartoum State as well. It lies at the confluence of the White Nile and the Blue Nile which converge into the River Nile in the north. It is the ruling center hosting the seats of the Presidency and the government as well as the federal ministries, the Armed Forces Command, the foreign diplomatic missions – embassies and consulates, a number of regional, Arab and African organizations and most of the State’s political institutions. Khartoum is Africa’s air center of flights flying across the Continent from North to South and from West to East. This Sudanese capital also hosts numerous government and private universities, other different educational institutions, head offices of the national companies and banks as well as branches of foreign companies 

Khartoum, as a capital, has been founded in the early decades of the 19th century during the Ottoman-Egyptian reign in Sudan but its history as a human habitat dates very far beyond that, as man has been in the place since stone-age. It was the home of an ancient civilization known as Alwah Kingdom, while the last century saw the first phase of its upsurge when high buildings were constructed during the Anglo-Egyptian condominium in the English architectural style 

Some of these edifices still exist, such as the old buildings of the University of Khartoum and a number of government facilities overlooking the Blue Nile, while some of those old buildings were transformed into public museums. There are some old bridges on the Nile linking the capital to surrounding urban centers. The population of the city of Khartoum is estimated at 2,682,431, making it the third highly populated in the Arab region after Cairo, Egypt, and Casablanca, Morocco, and Africa’s sixth city. This figure does not include the population of the three-city capital which is approximately 5,172,000 in number. The population of the capital is made up of different ethnicities and groups from within Sudan and abroad in addition to large numbers of refugees and others 

The climate in Khartoum is mild in winter with a high temperature in summer and heavy rains in autumn. It occupies a strategic position in the center of the country where the Two Niles converge, something which made it a tourist attraction, rich with archeological and natural cites and a hub for local and regional transport and communication.Distinction must be made between the National Capital, or the three-city capital as it is sometimes called, and Khartoum State. And between the two and Khartoum City, or Khartoum Umoum (General) as is sometimes called, and the metropolitan Three-city Capital which accommodates the government departments and units and in linked together geographically, administratively and socially. The Three-City capital consists of Khartoum Umoum which lies on the southern and western bank of the Blue Nile and the eastern bank of the White Nile; the second city is Omdurman which lies on the western banks of the White Nile and the River Nile while the third city is Khartoum North, in English, or Khartoum Bahry, deriving from the Egyptian dialect which calls the north direction Bahry, and this third city lies on the northern bank of the Blue Nile and eastern bank of the River Nile. As for Khartoum State, it comprises the Three Cities of the capital, their suburbs and the surrounding localities and it is one of the country’s 18 states 

The Geography: -The Sudan is dominated by the tropical climate which is characterized by a high temperature most of the year and progresses from very dry in the northern-most to semi-humid in the south; a desert and semi-desert in the north (the Northern, North Kordufan and North Darfur states). It is rainy in the center in the south and most of its land consists of flat planes with mountains in the east and the Nuba Mountains and Jebel Marra mountains in the west. It lies between Latitudes 8.45 and 23.8 degrees north and Altitude 21.49 and 38.24 degrees east. The rainfall ranges from Zero in the northernmost to 500mm and 1000 mm in the center and the south 

The Nile and its tributaries play a vital role in the Sudan’s economic, social and cultural walks of life and in the external relations. They are exploited in hydro-electric power general at Er-Rosaires, Sinner, Khashm al-Girbah, Jebel Awlia and Merowe dams. The Nile and its tributaries are also used for navigation and fishing.The ground-water reserve is estimated at 900 billion cubic meters exploited in irrigation and other civil purposes 

National Information Center, Khartoum, Sudan

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